Hindu-Muslim cooperation continued till Khilafat Movement and came to an end in 1924. From that movement onwards communal riot broke out in India and as time passed communal distrubaness increased in frequency and scale. The Hindus started the Shuddhi movement aimed at the mass conversation of certain back ward groups of Muslims who had adhered to some Hindus customs after having accepted Islam.
The main instrument was social pressure. They also set on foot the Sangathan programme which sought to organize the Hindus in to a militant force to fight with the Muslims. The Muslims replied with the tabligh and tanzim movements.
The late twenties were the years of bitter discussion among political leaders and parties over political settlement, with a view to the present a united front to the British over constitutional reforms.