Meanings of the Executive

The second organ or department of the government is the executive. This term is used in a broad as well as in a narrow sense. In the broad sense, the executive includes all officials of the State from the highest to the lowest, from the president down to a policeman or a patwari, who execute or enforce laws and administer the country.

In the narrow sense, it denotes the heads of the executive departments who determine the policy of the government, that is, the president or the king and the ministers or the cabinet. It is in this sense that the term ‘executive’ is commonly used in Political Science. Thus the executive in Great Britain means the Queen and the Cabinet of ministers, headed by the Prime Minister; and in the U.S.A. the President and his Secretaries; in Pakistan the Prime Minister and the Central Ministers or Provincial Governments and Ministers.

Those subordinate officials, who carry out the policy and actually enforce the laws, are administrative officials or simply the Administration. They constitute the public services.