Particular Rights & Civil Rights

Particular Rights 

Particular rights are those rights of a citizen which he actually enjoys. They comprise many civil and political rights, but no two States recognise one and the same list of them. Those civil and political rights which are generally recognised by civilised States in modern times in actual practice are called Particular Rights. We here briefly describe the particular or individual rights of fundamental nature, which should be guaranteed by every State, although the States do not grant an identical list of them (For our convenience, they are enumerated under separate headings of civil and political rights).

Civil Rights

It is the most fundamental of all rights. Without life, there shall be neither the individual, nor the society, nor the State. But life is meaningless if there is no guarantee for its safety and security. Hence the right to life means the protection of the life of the individual both within and outside the State.

It means that he will not be killed or injured in any way. It also means the right of self-defence in case of a direct and immediate danger to the life of the individual. It implies, further, that a person cannot be fined or imprisoned except according to the due processes of law. It also means that the State will punish those who try to commit suicide. But the right to life is not absolute. The State can call upon its citizens to sacrifice their lives in order to defend the country in times of war or aggression.