Science and Political Philosophy

Political Science is an offshoot of Political Philosophy: it has out of the latter at about the end of the nineteenth century. There is, much in common between the two. Both deal with one and the subject-matter, i.e. with political life, ideas and activities, the nature of: or political system. Political Philosophy also deals with the history ideas, which are also the material out of which Political Science Indeed, political thinkers of the past, from Plato to Allama Iqbal, sore philosophical than scientific. They thought of the ideal State or > make the State good and to make political activity a moral activity. <fed not concentrate their thoughts on political activities as such or to political institutions in order to draw conclusions and enunciate after actual observation of facts and facts alone. Instead, they were 1 with values.

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Political Philosophy speculates about political ideas, s, about the principles of political obligation (why-men should arousal authority) and about the nature of such terms as right and freedom and equality, while Political Science deals with the facts of activities and behavior, political relations and institutions. But, in their interdependence, some political writers claim themselves to be separate and independent disciplines. Arnold Brecht, for writes “From what has been said it follows regarding political that political philosophy, political theory, and political science are interchangeable terms as they were in the past.

Sometimes, as in i curricula, the term political science is still used in a very general cover all three. Yet when used specifically, with the emphasis science and on distinction from philosophy, political science now job efforts limited by the use of scientific methods, in contrast to philosophy, which is free to transcend these limits.

Political Science is empirical and inductive in its methods. It is not primarily concerned with the ideal State or society. It is analytical and research-oriented. It always aims at value-free theory, which is the essence of scientific inquiry. Political science uses quantitative methods of psychology and statistics. It analyses, classifies and quantifies its observations and conclusions.

Nevertheless, Political Science is not absolutely value-free, because a political scientist is biased in his judgments by the ruling Political Philosophy and ideology of his time, and by, the universal standards of the ethics and morality. This is the reason why we cannot subscribe to the view of some hard-core empirical and behaviorist political scientists, who deny any relationship and interdependence between Political Philosophy and Political Science.

This is an extreme view’. There is also no scientist, whether of social or natural sciences, who does not make use of unproved postulates and intuitive hypotheses and there is no philosopher who does not employ empirical Statements.

 

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